National and historical symbols of Hungary

In this section you can find the crests of almost 2400 settlements of Hungary with notes. Find the starting letter of the settlement in the list and click if you want to see it.

The Coat-of-Arms of the Village of Hejőbába [¤]
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Hejőbába

(Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County)

Triangular military shield erect and argent, its base party per fess vert. In field argent two flaming hearts are borne encouped and gules, their central parts overlap. Shield is topped by a crown or adorned with gems vert and gules and crested by a ploughshare. On both sides shield is flanked by two palm branches or.

Above the crown a ribbon argent is borne encouped with the motto ’LOVE UNITES US’ inscribed in it. Below the shield a ribbon argent is borne encouped with the settlement’s name HEJŐBÁBA written in it.

The brief history of Hejőbába can be decribed as follows:

As everywhere else in the region people inhabited this area at a very early period. The clean waters as well as the rich pastures of the place gave early inhabitants plenty of food and also made their lives easier and safer. As it is attested by archeological finds people appeared in the area as early as the Bronze Age. Household articles, some tools and objects from people’s everyday lives have been unearthed in the region.

As it is shown from finds relating to later historical periods the area has been continuously inhabited ever since. Various peoples of the period of the Great Migration all appeared in the region. The fact, that an Árpád Age settlement existed here proves, that the conditions had proven extremely favourable for early settlers. The conquering Hungarians also established their own settlements here. The first settlers were of Kabar origin and they belonged to the members of the Örösúr clan.

The first written mention of Hejőbába goes back to 1234. In various documents of that age the settlement’s name appeared in the form Baba or Babil, and it was mentioned as the property of castle inhabitants, settling down in the fields surrounding the local castle. Ethimologically the word Bába is likely to go back to an ancient Slavic word meaning ’old woman’. In the Middle Ages a distinction was made between Alsó (Lower) and Felső (Upper) Bába. Later the two settlements got united.

After the Hungarian Conquest the area became a royal property and this fact explains that in addition to the Slavic inhabitants of the place other ethnicities also appeared and settled down. Thus by the early 13th century property ownership had changed and the members of the ancient conquering clans were replaced by new landlords as proerty owners. The larger part of the area in Borsod County was acquired by the members of the Bors clan and they gave the county its first bailiff as well. Following the lost battle of Muhi of 1241 the bestowal of former royal properties speeded up and this was how the Ernye family of the Ákos clan and the Italian Rátóts as well as some church officials acquired large properties in the area.

The lands around Hejőcsaba suffered from attacks first by the Mongols, later by the Turks. Both troops destroyed much of the settlement. Hejőbába was part of the Turkish-occupied areas, so the village had to pay taxes to the Turks as well. The Turkisk administration slowed down, occasionally halted the economic development of the settlement, but occasionally it had a beneficial effect on it as well.This latter case can be proven by the fact that market towns were granted charters of safe-guard by them.

The village was located quite far from the main trade routes of the time, and this is why it took some time until Hejőbába was able to follow the new economic trends which were typical of the 15th and 16th centuries. This is the time from which a distinction has to be made between industry and agriculture, as well as towns and villages. The result of financial growth, which went hand in hand with industrial development, was, that in the 16th century 13 settlements were raised to the rank of market towns in Borsod County. The nearest market town to Hejőbába was Emőd.

From the second half of the 16th century onward seignioral domestic economy dominated in the area and this fact contributed to the growth of villein services. Serfs occasionally redeemed their duties or escaped and became outlaws. Since local villeins lived under continuously worsening conditions, they gave the basis for local peasant revolts in this region throughout the 17th century. Thököly’s movement was one of these movements.

After Rákóczi’s War of Independence the area got uninhabited and agricultural production was almost nonexistent. In order to promote the resettlement of the area landlords temporarily gave various privileges to new settlers, but their privileged status ceased to exist by the mid-18th century. A process of pauperisation began and it did not spare the nobility either. The majority of local nobles belonged to the group of havenots, and it was only their privileged social status which made a distinction between them and the serfs. Some of noblemen were among the social reformers of the age.

After the War of Independence of 1848/49 the regionof South Borsod and the area by the Hejő river was quite far from those places where industrialisation was going on (Northern and Central Borsod). This region remained a rural one where land property dominated and the peasants emigrated in order to get rid of poverty and hopelessness.Those who did not wish to leave their native country moved to the industial regions. The inhabitants expected some improvement of of their living conditions from the local agrarian movements. Some people wanted larger property while others fought for higher wages and better working conditions. Early 20th century developments included preparation for the war, large-scale industrialisation and a greater demand for labour force. Still, industrialisation did not result in major improvements in the field of agriculture. Large land properties were dominant in the region until as late as 1944.

On November 5 and 6 of 1944 Hejőbába was attacked by the planes of the Soviet Air Force and the Germans burnt down the building of the railway station. The Russian soldiers did not spare the local inhabitants, looted their homes and carried them off to forced labour. When the military operations came to an end in the region, in January 1945 the national Council was established. The rebuilding of the railway station was the most important task of the reconstruction period. The years of the Rákosi-era were quite difficult for the inhabitants of Hejőbába as well. Some improvement was felt under the Kádár regime. It was only in 1990, following the overall changing of the political system in Hungary, that the inhabitants of the village became really free and independent.

Photos:

01. Village Hall

02. Calvinist Church

03. Ceiling of the Catholic Church

04. Catholic Church

05. An old building

06. Kindergarten

07. Second World War Memorial

08. Centre for psychiatric patients

09. An old building

10. Cultural Centre